It has always been a matter of debate whether newly conquered areas with different races and cultures can be counted as colonies. In history, Russia’s colonization of Central Asia, Siberia and North America, the westward movement of the United States, the colonization of Eastern Europe by the Teutonic Knights, and the conquest of areas around […]


After colonial independence in Africa and Asia was widespread in the 1950s, some suzerainty States extended extensive aid to former colonies. The content of the assistance includes not only economic, but also political, cultural and military cooperation.Economic aid is the main form of suzerainty’s aid, including direct economic aid, as well as financial aid in […]


Britain ruled its colonies differently from colonial powers such as France, Portugal, Spain, the German Empire and Belgium. France, Portugal, Spain and other countries adopted the method of direct rule, trying to integrate the colonies politically and economically with the suhonate, and vigorously instilling the suhonate’s culture and way of life in order to assimilate […]

Event impact

Because the American colonies became independent earlier, the historical role of colonies was mainly reflected in Africa and Asia.In 1853, Karl Marx proposed in his essay The Future Outcome of British Rule in India that colonies and colonialism had a “dual mission”, namely a destructive mission and a constructive mission, both of which had positive […]

The movement for colonial independence after World War II

As a result of the Second World War, the major colonial powers that remained after the First World War, such as Britain, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Italy, were weakened by the war. During the war, the national industries of the unoccupied allied colonies, such as India, East Africa, Nigeria, Belgian Congo, etc., developed to […]

The repartition of colonies and two world wars

By the early 20th century, colonial powers and colonies had taken up 85% of the world’s land area. Colonies were unevenly distributed among nations. In addition to the still powerful Britain and France, the long-fallen Spain and Portugal still controlled large colonies, while the new states of the United States, Germany, Japan and Italy held […]

Late 19th century to early 20th century

The climax of the colonial occupationAfter the end of the Franco-Prussian War and the political unification of Germany in 1870, German geographer Friedrich Ratzsl began to study the market problem of German industrial products which was expanding at that time, and began to use geography to justify Bismarck’s imperialist policies. He believes that as the […]

Age of industrial revolution

Colonial atrophyWith the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the traditional triangular trade of sugar, tobacco and slaves was no longer relevant. Demand for industrial raw materials, such as cotton, wool, fuel, iron, copper, tin, coal, etc. in the industrial countries replaced demand for consumer goods, and there was an urgent need for these countries to […]

17th century to the middle of 18th century

Britain, France and the NetherlandsWith the discovery of the New World, the Atlantic Ocean replaced the Mediterranean as the only commercial route between East and West, which led to the decline of the traditional commercial cities of the Italian region and the Hanseatic League in northern Germany, and the economic rise of the Atlantic-facing countries […]

The 15th to 17th centuries

The colonial empires of Spain and PortugalIt is generally believed that the first colony occupied by a Western country in modern times was Ceuta, which was occupied by Portugal in 1415. The port was originally owned by Morocco. In order to put out the local pirates and control the import of West African gold and […]